Williamson Fine Teas Ltd. Launches Website Showcasing Tea Farming Transparency


(Nr Marlborough, Wiltshire)– According to doctors, tea offers a variety of benefits for a person who drinks it on a regular basis. Tea has anti-inflammatory benefits as well as antioxidant properties. Those who drink tea are at a lower risk of diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Making tea without additives also contains very few calories, making it a healthy choice for a drink.

The downside to tea is the amount of pesticides that might be used in the production and the lack of knowing what sources were used to make the tea. For those concerned about the environment, the carbon footprint created when teas are shipped across the world is also a concern.

Williamson Fine Teas Ltd. is a fifth-generation company attempting to alleviate these concerns with their new website. In light of stories about Tea farmers being taken advantage of, pesticide use being higher than national limits, and trouble determining exactly where the tea was cultivated, this company is working to show consumers exactly where their tea is grown and how it’s cultivated and delivered to their home.

Edward Magor, spokesperson for Williamson Fine Teas Ltd., stated, “We believe everyone should know the origin of their teas. We are offering complete transparency of the process from the growing tea leaves to the cultivation, processing and shipment. Consumers can visit our website to learn everything they want to know about our teas.”

The Bush to Cup Transparency offered by Williamson Fine Teas Ltd., focuses on introducing consumers to the way tea is grown, who is growing the tea, and more. The company manages all of their farms sustainably to ensure future generations can enjoy the benefits of the fertile soils and wild forests. Williamson Fine Teas Ltd. uses the unique properties of each of the farms to grow the tea naturally, without the use of pesticides.

On the website, consumers can learn about their four farms located in the Kenyan highlands. Consumers can click on a link to each of these farms to learn about the climate, soil, and animals living in the area. The blog also reviews information consumers may want to read to learn more about tea, the benefits of tea, and the growth of the tea. 

Consumers can purchase teas directly from their website and take advantage of free shipping with a minimal purchase. The consumer can choose from a variety of flavors and can even choose tea grown at the farm they prefer. This is done by clicking on the name of the farm on the main website and taking a look at what teas are grown there.

Magor stated, “Our teas arrive in a unique elephant container. We have partnered with the David Sheldrick Wildlife Trust and a percentage of every elephant caddy that is sold online is donated to this trust. Tea drinkers can feel good about their contributions as they purchase the finest quality tea from our farms.”

About Williamson Fine Teas Ltd.:

Williamson Fine Teas Ltd. is a fifth-generation tea farming business committed to growing the highest-quality sustainable teas. The company strives to benefit Kenya, where their farms are located. The company has over 140 years of experience growing tea and blends fine teas completely grown on their own farms to control the quality of the product. The company is introducing their new website with an innovative bush to cup transparency program to ensure consumers know they’re receiving pesticide-free, sustainably grown teas.

Media Contact:

Edward Magor


Manor Farm, Little Bedwyn Estate, Little Bedwyn, Nr Marlborough, Wiltshire, SN8 3JR


Source: http://investor.manilanews.net/newsnet.manilanews/news/read/24835365


Scotland: Gregor Townsend to take over from Vern Cotter as head coach

Gregor Townsend is to replace Vern Cotter as Scotland head coach in June 2017, Scottish Rugby has announced.
Glasgow Warriors head coach Townsend, 43, previously 1xbet worked with Scotland as part of Andy Robinson’s backroom staff.
The former Scotland fly-half, who won 82 caps – plus two for the Lions – led Warriors to the Pro12 title in 2015.
“I am incredibly proud. It is a real honour to be given the responsibility of coaching the national team,” said Townsend.
“My focus is firmly on the season ahead with Glasgow and I will be doing all I can to help the club continue to progress this year.”

New Zealander Cotter, 54, has been in charge of the Scots since 2014 and led them to the World Cup quarter-finals last year.
Shortly before that tournament, the former Clermont Auvergne head coach had extended his contract until 2017.
Scotland lost all five Tests in his first Six Nations but they improved this year with wins over Italy and France, scoring a best-ever 11 tries in a single campaign.
“I believe we have moved forward by working to execute the simple 1xbet  things well,” said Cotter, who has now coached in Europe for a decade after an eight-year spell in France with Clermont Auvergne.
“The focus has been to respect tradition but also perform in the present, be adaptive and innovative. I have been really pleased with the progress that has been made.”
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The Way a Enterprise Can Reach Its Goals at a Trade Show

Trade events are frequently a approach that a lot of organizations participate in every year as a way to raise business, network and in addition, to find out exactly what the opposition is definitely up to. They often are taking place in substantial meeting or expo centers in major cities as well as their champions provide space to corporations that are in that industry which are enthusiastic about establishing a sales space plus displaying precisely what they’ve got to provide. Industry events are usually held in numerous different market sectors, and you may learn more in the event you click here and skim for new info. If searching for exhibits to take part within that happen to be in the area, seek advice from over-site organizations within your specific sector, or perhaps at the same time, call your regional chamber of commerce to discover what’s forthcoming on their meeting calendar.

Trade events cost a enterprise a significant amount of time, cash, energy as well as manpower and then can offer major gains with regards to publicity, clients, field associations, plus much more. To be able to obtain the most out of this unique and considerable expenditure, it is crucial that an organization go into the undertaking using straightforward objectives plus a method they could conduct which will assure they reach them. (To learn more concerning ambitions and also appropriate goal setting tools, find this site.) Not all trade show players currently have the same goals. Illustrations are the sort of ambitions that a organization may set for itself include increasing brand publicity, attaining further clientele, increasing market share, acquiring new distributors, or even something else completely.

In spite of your own business’s distinct goals, the initial step with attaining them all is to get trade extravaganza delegates to arrive at an individual’s booth, which means that you need to have an desirable booth that sticks out via all the rest and which pulls awareness. Most companies nowadays bypass seeking to layout their unique booth with folding tables, lattice, crepe paper and poster board and as an alternative, consult with trade event design specialty groups to develop a presentation area that not only draws in focus, but that additionally looks professional, innovative, and then which always does a great job of furthering their own brand. If an individual’s company will be in a scientifically sophisticated field it’s crucial that you include technological elements inside the design of the organization’s sales space at the same time.


Should You Have Your Business Go the Digital Route?

Presently there is no doubt a distinct and also developing variety of businesses these days that tend to be understanding that they typically are living in a time in which everything is feasible that merely have not been inside ages past. The options tend to be revitalizing, invigorating, and even distressing for some. Timing is vital to lots of of the selections that supervisors of organizations such as Newnham Engineering must create. Each and every supervisor would like his or her business, whether it’s one that handles cnc engineering or even one that creates nappies, to be a chief inside its area of interest, setting an illustration for some individuals to follow along with without the need of mindlessly following each and every trend which comes along. Several choices are suitable for nearly every company even though various others are usually appropriate exclusively for a few. Creating the appropriate options for an individual’s particular business is the target. Occasionally, one may be fortunate enough to recognize that a few alternatives are usually excellent across the board.

For instance, think about the trend that great numbers of people precision engineering companies tend to be going for, that relating to going paperless. It is an admirable desire to have a totally paperless business, not simply with the viewpoint of being eco-friendly dependable, but additionally, when it comes to saving the business money. Not only are registering method fees stored, but in addition, quite a few effort hours. This is done in the event the storage space of web data is computerized and ideally transferred to cloud servers to be able to guarantee that absolutely no great loss may arise, no matter what goes on within the job atmosphere. Employees turn out to be far more effective, data is a lot more quickly recovered, plus bodily safe-keeping wants are usually lessened.

Your cnc engineers sussex firm, when planning to be paper free, will save you money in places for example accounts receivable, postage, employee records, buyer data, plus more. The business’s document area could eventually turn out to be outmoded and perhaps can be repurposed inside ways that generate revenue as an alternative to require it. Software can be employed that could capture the information you need out of personal computer papers as they’re made and also mature data may be scanned straight into long term storage and also discarded. Once the firm has migrated to paperless capture, the company’s data entry and also document supervision will end up so structured that this entire business will probably feel as though it’s a hundred pounds lighter weight which, in fact, it may possibly be!


2050 world population or go to 9.9 billion, the fastest population growth?

United States Census Bureau (PRB) at the end of August a new 1xbet зepкaлo life by site report predicted that by 2050, the world population will rise to 9.9 billion. This number is so far, all key population projections for the future are high.
At the end of July last year of the United Nations world population prospects: 2015 2050 world population is also mentioned in the version number changes. The report of the United Nations, about 7.3 billion on the basis of the total population in the world, by 2030 this figure is expected to rise to 8.5 billion by 2050 rising to 9.7 billion. France National Institute for demographic studies 2015 report also believes that, in 2050 the world population will rise from the current 7.1 billion people to 9.7 billion. In addition, the International Monetary Fund in March this year in the global demographic changes referred to, world population will exceed 8 billion by 2024, by 2038 will exceed 9 billion by 2056 will exceed 10 billion.
PRB believes that in the current world population of 7.4 billion on the basis of the next 35 years the world population will be climbing at about 33%. Among them, the largest increase in Africa. This year, and the total fertility rate in the top 10 in the country or region, without exception, all African countries.
In the West African country, Nigeria, for example, 1xbet зepкaлo reported that by 2050, Nigeria’s population will double from the current 187 million rising to 398 million, ranking will rise from the current seventh position after the United States fourth. For the next 35 years the world’s population increases so significantly because, according to the report, based on the development of science and technology, people’s intake of nutrients and water resources is easier than ever.


Make Certain that the tool You Will Be Getting is Appropriate for You

In terms of dealing with difficult trees within the yard or perhaps you are simply wanting to clip off a couple of limbs, a chainsaw is an extremely great tool to enjoy. These machines are capable of sawing down a tree in only seconds or even cutting off useless tree limbs from overhead. The entire process making use of a saw delivers the visible impression of an enormous lumberjack scaling down huge woods in the woods. Prior to anyone endeavors to proceed felling timber nearly everywhere in their outdoor area they must perform a couple important factors. First of all is to purchase every one of the basic safety tools that’ll be needed, plus the 2nd is to purchase a chainsaw.

There are various models of power saw, every with their personal pros and cons that may be witnessed located at https://thetoolboss.com. Even so, nearly all could be grouped in to either gas or electric run chainsaws. Nearly all dedicated wood cutters will certainly advise opting for gas-powered given that they can provide more ability to the cutters, however , at the price tag of being large. A strong electrical one will do well for almost anything that it’ll go up in opposition to. Before selecting virtually any huge resource such as these you should make sure to check out the thetoolboss.com to determine just what specialists consider them.


What to Understand When Playing Roulette

A lot of people spend their leisure time playing casino. Some of them find casino games as an amusement and others are after with the winnings they could get from enjoying such. You can pick from the wide range of casino games including roulette. This game includes the prediction of the number where the ball stops. Beginners choose to play this game aside because it gives thrill and enjoyment. Before playing, it is necessary to know the fundamentals oh how to play roulette – visit http://how.wheretoplayroulette.com to know more details. The content of this article and also http://how.wheretoplayroulette.com popular blog about how to play roulette and the basic rules of the game.
Roulette Gameplay
In order to begin roulette game, Eight players are needed and a dealer, that will facilitate the game. The gamers has to select a number on the wheel which they think will win, the ball would be used to determine the winning number. The next action will be the spinning of the wheel by the croupier. A few seconds before the spinning stops, the dealer will say, “No more bets”. Which means, players aren’t permitted to place or add bets. The time the ball stops to a certain number, the dealer will determine the winners and give their winnings and just after casting of bets will be made and another set of game will be started. All the placed bets will be collected by the dealer if not one of them place their bets on the winning number.
Wagering System of the Game
This game has a lot of betting system that can be used. Find below some of the type of wagering that you could apply to be more effective on how to play roulette game:
•    Straight-up Bet- This is the easiest bet to take into account on this game. You will have to place your chips on the roulette and you’re allowed to only play that specific number. Since the gamer has to place bet only to a particular number, its more challenging to win so the payout is certainly of higher price. •    Split Bet- This bet is also known as two number bet that allows the player to split their bet between 2 numbers within proximity. There will be a greater chance of winning, as you’re likely to bet on 2 numbers at a time. •    Street bet and trio bet- These bets will allow you to play on 3 numbers within a single game as it has the similar principle. In street bets, you can choose three numbers in horizontal form allowing you to cover it and while putting your chips on the outside row. On the other hand, trio bet lets you choose 3 numbers on intersecting tringles that will form either 0,1,2 or 0,2,3 which you’ll also place your bets. •    Corner bet- This type of betting allows you to pick 4 numbers that will form a square. The chips should be place in four intersecting numbers. As an example, you can put your chips on the crossing line on the numbers 4,5,7 and 8 which provides you the chance to make actions on those said numbers. •    Six line Bet- This will enable you to cover 6 numbers with just a single bet. To make it possible you need to position your chips on the intersecting point on the outside edge of horizontal row.
When you have any intentions to play roulette, follow those suggestions presented above. Trying to search more concerning how to play roulette wheel provides you more idea on how to play and win the game.


Top Facts To Consider Anytime You’d Like To Start A Company

Whenever somebody wants to start up a small business, they should consider every aspect of their own company. They’ll want to be sure they have a meticulously produced plan in place to enable them to attain all of their goals as well as make sure their own small business will be pointed in the path they need it to go. They don’t really need definite strategies, but they must at the very least be sure they have some idea of what they want and precisely what they anticipate to occur with their own small business.

A person ought to to begin with start off by thinking of the objectives they’ve got for their small business. This can be as general or even as particular as the person desires, but it should be sensible. They shouldn’t anticipate to have a multi million dollar business after the first several months. They should, on the other hand, have targets for the size of their own business, whether or not they might wish to broaden down the road, as well as precisely how they want to help their own small business expand. It may be a smart idea to jot down their particular objectives to allow them to keep an eye on all of them and include new details whenever they think about them.

The person may furthermore be required to think about their spending budget. They may wish to see here to be able to find out far more concerning identifying an affordable budget for their business. It will cost some time as well as cash in order to begin a company, regardless of whether they don’t have a location, because they are going to have to have supplies as well as specialist help for several facets of the business. They should compose a list together with their expected spending budget and also just what they think they’re going to have to have to get the company off the ground to enable them to have a strong idea of whether or not their requirements will fit inside their original spending budget.

There are lots of more factors that the individual will desire to consider well before they’ll establish their particular business. It really is crucial to write this down to enable them to refer to it whenever they want to as their particular company will get started. In the event you want to know more, you’ll be able to learn more about it right now using solutions from this site. Have a look now to discover almost everything you are going to want to know concerning starting off your business.


infertility, IVF and assisted conception treatment

Assisted conception (or ‘fertility treatment’ or often referred to collectively as Assisted Reproduction Technology “ART”) is a general term to describe all the methods used to help a woman achieve a pregnancy when she is having difficulty conceiving. Some of the more complex activities are currently regulated by the Human Fertilisation and Embryology Act 1990.
The world’s first ‘test-tube baby’. Louise Brown. was born in the UK in 1978. Her birth offered hope to infertile couples across the world. Since then. thousands of couples have made use of in vitro fertilisation (IVF) and other assisted conception techniques. The success rates of these treatments continue to improve.
Today. assisted conception treatments are tailored to individual patients’ unique conditions. These procedures are usually paired with more conventional therapies. such as fertility drugs. to increase success rates. On average. one in five couples who use assisted conception techniques gives birth to a baby or in some cases twins or even triplets depending on the technique.
However. the procedures are invasive and expensive. In addition. although no long-term health effects have been linked to children born using the new reproductive technologies. most doctors recommend reserving such procedures as a last resort for having a baby.
What are the reasons for having assisted conception?
No one knows for certain how many couples have difficulty conceiving. since some will decide not to seek medical treatment. In the UK. however. approximately one in six couples do seek medical help to have a baby. In most cases there will be one or more causes that a specialist can pinpoint and. possibly. treat.
Contrary to popular belief. infertility is not just a woman’s problem. In fact. it strikes men and women almost equally. About 35 per cent of cases can be attributed to men. 35-40 per cent to women. and the rest to multiple factors affecting both partners. some of which remain unexplained.
The three most common reasons for assisted conception are that the woman’s ovaries are not producing eggs. her fallopian tubes (tubes from the uterus to the ovary) are damaged or that the man’s sperm are too few or unhealthy. These reasons account for about 90 per cent of all cases. Treatments are available for both male and female fertility problems.
Ovulation and egg quality
Conditions in this category include polycystic ovary syndrome. poor egg quality. and irregular ovulation or failure to ovulate (because of hormonal deficiencies or imbalances). These problems. especially deteriorating egg quality. are often age-related. and apply most often to women aged over 37.
Possible solutions: Treatments include fertility drugs. in vitro fertilisation (IVF). and use of a donor egg.
Blocked fallopian tubes
Infections. endometriosis. scar tissue. adhesions. and damaged tube ends (fimbria) can result in blocked or otherwise abnormal fallopian tubes. Even if you ovulate regularly. blocked tubes make pregnancy next to impossible. since your egg can’t get to your uterus. and sperm can’t get to your egg.
Possible solutions: The main treatment is usually IVF. However. if the blockage is found to be limited to a small area it might be possible to clear it by keyhole or open tubal surgery to remove the blocked portion. Infections such as chlamydia tend to damage the whole length of the tube and are less amenable to surgery. A laparoscopy is usually carried out to determine which is the most appropriate treatment for you.
Male-factor problems
In men. infertility can be the result of a blocked vas deferens or epididymis. poor sperm quality. low sperm motility (the sperm’s ability to move). a semen deficiency. or not having enough (or any) sperm to begin with.
Possible solutions: Just as women often undergo surgery to open blocked fallopian tubes. men may have an operation to clear their blocked tubes (again. a full assessment. including hormonal tests and an evaluation of sperm motility. precedes surgery). If something else is at the root of the problem. fertility drugs may boost sperm production. or a man’s sperm can be used to artificially inseminate his partner. Other options include using donor sperm or injecting sperm directly into the egg (intracytoplasmic sperm injection or ICSI).
Other causes
A minority of cases include pelvic inflammatory disease (PID). recurrent miscarriage. endometriosis (also under blocked fallopian tubes) or some other unexplained condition as a reason for assisted conception. Discuss possible solutions and treatments with your GP who will refer you to an infertility specialist if necessary.
What are the Treatment Options ?
Your treatment options will vary according to the cause of your infertility. Your doctor may well suggest trying the least invasive options first. The newer and more high-tech treatments. such as in vitro fertilisation (IVF). are considered a last resort. largely because of their cost and complexity. However. drug treatment and surgery are very effective. In fact. of those couples who successfully go on to have children. most are treated with fertility drugs or surgery only.
The right treatment for each couple depends on many factors. including:& ;
  • the age of the woman
  • the quality of the man’s sperm
  • how long the couple have been infertile
  • whether or not the woman has had a previous pregnancy.
Your treatment options – from least to most invasive – are:
Fertility drugs
When hormones are out of balance or in short supply for women (and. in some cases. for men). these drugs may get your reproductive system back on track.
Artificial insemination (AI)
In some cases. sperm just need a shortcut to the egg. A concentrated dose of your partner’s sperm placed in your uterus or fallopian tubes can aid fertilisation. AI. also known as Intrauterine insemination (IUI) can also help couples where the man’s sperm is unable to get through the woman’s cervical mucus. Donor sperm may also be used.
Blocked tubes. endometriosis. fibroids and ovarian cysts – all implicated in fertility problems – are often treated with surgery.
Assisted Conception Treatments
Fertility drugs and other conventional treatment options are combined with high-tech procedures. such as egg collection. to treat low sperm counts. fallopian tube problems. or ovulation problems. These procedures include in vitro fertilisation (IVF). gamete intrafallopian transfer (GIFT). zygote intrafallopian transfer (ZIFT). intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI). and the use of donated eggs or sperm. The use of a surrogate mother is considered by some couples.
Investigations and treatment for infertility are normally undertaken in a specialised fertility clinic. To decide what treatment to use. some routine tests are carried out by the specialist. To see whether the woman is ovulating (producing eggs) her blood is tested for the levels of some hormones called progesterone. luteinising hormone. follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and testosterone. She will have an ultrasound scan of the womb. tubes and ovaries.xx
The specialist may decide to carry out a laparoscopy an operative procedure to examine the inside of the abdomen using a long. thin instrument (laparoscope) and a hysterosalpingogram (a special X-ray of the womb and fallopian tubes). These tests show whether the ovaries look normal and whether the tubes are damaged or blocked.xx
The man needs to produce a sample of semen for a sperm test to check the numbers of sperm. whether they are motile (able to move normally) and whether they have a normal structure.

What happens during treatment for female infertility?

Ovulation induction
Ovulation induction is a technique that stimulates the inactive ovary to produce eggs. At its simplest it involves the woman taking a drug called clomiphene for six days each month. This method is most often used for women who have conditions such as polycystic ovary syndrome. in which the ovaries do not produce eggs.
Ovulation induction is also the first stage of preparation for in-vitro fertilisation (IVF). which is the treatment needed by most women whose tubes are damaged. Three hormones are used: one to suppress the ovaries. one to stimulate several eggs to develop simultaneously and one to ripen the eggs. The aim is to control the timing of the woman’s cycle accurately so that eggs can be removed to be fertilised on a specific day. A normal monthly cycle will produce only one egg but this method produces several ripe eggs at once to increase the chances of a pregnancy. This is called ‘superovulation’.
The first hormone. buserelin. is usually given as a nasal spray taken every day from the first day of the period. After two weeks the woman has an ultrasound scan to make sure the ovaries are inactive. She then starts the next hormone. FSH. which is given by a daily injection. A second scan is done after 10 days of taking FSH to make sure enough eggs are developing and then the woman has one injection of HCG (human chorionic gonadotrophin). The eggs should then be ready for collection 36 hours later.
Egg collection
Egg collection is the process of removing the ripe eggs in order to fertilise them. It is carried out in an operating theatre while the woman is awake. but with an injection of a strong painkiller and a tranquilliser. A speculum is put into the vagina. similar to the procedure for a smear test. A thin needle is passed through the vagina and into the ovary to collect the eggs (the doctor can see the ovaries by using an ultrasound scanner on the abdomen). The procedure takes about 20 minutes in total.
The eggs are mixed with the partner’s sperm on the same day and after 12-18 hours they are checked under a microscope to see if they have fertilised. Embryos (fertilised eggs) can be introduced into the womb using a thin tube passed through the cervix (neck of the womb). This is done about 36 hours after fertilisation and it is very quick and painless. The final stage is a pregnancy test after about 12 days.
What happens during treatment for male infertility?
If the man has a very low sperm count or the sperm are not motile enough. the specialist may advise the couple to have intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI). The woman undergoes ovulation induction and the embryos are transferred as described above. but in the fertilisation process the sperm is actually injected into the egg through a very fine glass tube. This technique can result in pregnancy even with sperm of very low motility.
Surgical sperm collection may be suitable for men who have no sperm at all in their semen. This may be because the man has a blocked vas deferens. the duct that takes sperm from the testis. or because he has had a vasectomy; sometimes the testicles simply produce very few sperm. Sperm can be sucked out of the tubes below the level of the blockage or from the testicle itself. Both of these procedures are carried out with a fine needle under local anaesthetic at the same time as the woman’s eggs are being collected. The eggs can be fertilised by ICSI and then transferred into the womb.
Other techniques
IVF can be carried out with donor sperm or donor eggs. The sperm and embryos can also be frozen for future use. You will need to discuss these methods with your specialist. There are other techniques that are similar to IVF. such as GIFT (gamete intrafallopian transfer). but these are undertaken less often because they tend to be less successful.
Donor insemination :
If the man has no sperm at all (azoospermia) or very few sperm present (severe oligospermia) donor insemination (sperm donation) may be the only option open to them. Sperm is inseminated into the womb after ovulation has been precisely timed.
Egg donation :
This may be offered to women who have undergone a premature menopause. which may occur for a variety of reasons. or to women who consistently respond poorly to ovarian stimulation in IVF. If you are unable to conceive using your own eggs. an egg donated by another woman can be used. The donor must be prepared to undergo stimulation of the ovaries with drugs and egg collection as if she were undergoing IVF herself. The eggs are then fertilized with sperm from the infertile woman’s partner and the embryos replaced in the infertile woman’s womb. This procedure can also be done with a donated embryo.
Gamete intrafallopian transfer (GIFT):
‘Gamete’ refers to the basic genetic contribution from each partner — a sperm or an egg. In GIFT. your eggs are removed. mixed together with your partner’s sperm in a dish in a laboratory. then placed into your fallopian tubes. Fertilisation happens inside your body and the embryo implants naturally. A variation on this technique is Zygote Intrafallopian Transfer (ZIFT). ‘Zygote’ is a term used to refer to a newly fertilised egg. In ZIFT. your collected eggs are fertilised with your partner’s sperm in a dish in a laboratory and then replaced in your fallopian tubes.
Another woman carries your embryo. or a donor embryo. to term and gives the baby to you after birth.
Cryopreservation (Embryo freezing and storage).
Clinics are only allowed to replace up to 3 embryos during a treatment cycle because of the risks of multiple pregnancies (it is normally 2 with the exception of& ;some circumstances). Ask if the clinic has freezing and storage facilities so that any spare embryos can be frozen for future treatments. If any spare embryos are not required for further treatment you can donate them to others for treatment. donate them for research purposes or allow them to perish. It is very important that you discuss these options between yourselves and with your clinic as joint consent must be given. There is usually an annual cost associated with freezing and storage although this is fairly minimal.
What are the possible complications of assisted conception?
Ovulation induction increases the chances of having a multiple pregnancy. The most important maternal complications associated with multiple gestation are pre-eclampsia, preterm labor and delivery, and gestational diabetes as well as the potential risks involved with prolonged bedrest (venous thromboembolism) and cesarean delivery. Prematurity, and the complications associated with it (including increased infant mortality and increased incidence of cerebral palsy), is the greatest risk for the child.
Ovulation induction can also produce a rare condition called ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome, in which the ovary is overstimulated and produces an excess of the hormone oestrogen and which occurs in about 0.5 per cent of cycles. Also, any technique that involves the introduction of instruments into the body can cause infection or damage to internal organs.
What are the chances of a Multiple Pregnancy ?
Multiple gestation, especially triplet and higher order pregnancy, is not the desired consequence of assisted conception technologies since it increases the risk of complications for both mother and baby. The goal of any reproductive technology is the birth of a single healthy child and the conception of twins or higher is considered a complication. Ovulation induction increases the chances of having a multiple pregnancy (twins, triplets etc). The rate of multiple pregnancy is increased compared to spontaneous conception. Unlike natural conception where the chance of having a multiple birth is relatively low (1 in every 65 pregnancies), assisted conception brings with it a high chance of a multiple birth (roughly 1 in 4 IVF deliveries is of twins i.e. the chance of twins is approximately 20 to 25 per cent.). Although most twins are born healthy, the chance of complications during pregnancy and delivery is much greater than with a singleton. The high incidence of multiple births following IVF is largely due to the fact that more than one embryo is usually transferred to the womans womb during an IVF cycle. This is done to increase the chance of conception.
Will we have to pay for treatment?
For many years in the UK, there was no central government guidance on what health authorities should offer couples seeking infertility treatment, so what was available on the NHS depended on where you lived and what treatments were offered locally – a situation sometimes referred to as “babies by postcode”.
However, the government has announced that, from April 2005, all infertile couples will be entitled to one free cycle of IVF on the NHS, provided that the woman is under 40 years old and that the couple meet local eligibility criteria. Priority will be given to couples who don’t yet have any children.
Until then, every couple has the right to be assessed for treatment but not all couples will be deemed by their Primary Care Trust as eligible for treatment. You may also find that what is available to you is rationed. For example, you may be offered fertility drugs, but nothing else, GIFT, but not IVF, tubal microsurgery, but not IVF, or a maximum of three cycles of IVF. However, some Primary Care Trusts offer no help at all for infertile couples.
Most Primary Care Trusts also have criteria determining who they will fund for treatment. You may find that you need to be married, under 35, or to have lived in the district for a certain number of years. There are also long waiting lists for treatment in many areas.
Many couples, where they can afford it, use a mix of both NHS and private treatment. To be treated at a private clinic, you have to conform to the clinic’s eligibility criteria (a clinic may not treat you if you are over 45, for example). Costs vary widely between clinics, often by several thousand pounds. Always ask in advance what the full cost of each treatment cycle is likely to be. Don’t forget the hidden costs, too, of taking time off work and travel expenses – you may need to make many journeys to the clinic.
Although all clinics have their own price list you can expect IVF or GIF or Egg Donation to cost between £1000 – £3000 per attempt. NHS units will probably not charge for basic infertility investigations and some treatments. However they may have to charge for the more advanced assisted conception techniques but usually less than at a private unit.& ;Basic investigations, i.e. blood tests, semen analysis etc, can be expected to cost £150 – £200 and consultations can cost as much as £100 each time at a Private unit. The cost of drugs used in assisted conception is rarely covered. One average cycle may cost from £500 – £750.
What is the outcome of assisted conception?
Success depends largely on the cause of your infertility and your age – younger women are more likely to get pregnant than women over 40. Making sure you are in the best of health, perhaps limiting alcohol and caffeine, improving your diet, and giving up smoking can go a long way toward bettering your odds of getting pregnant (a dad-to-be’s diet matters, too).
Don’t discount the emotional stresses involved. Find a willing friend, support group, or professional to talk to before tackling infertility and also while you’re going through fertility treatment.
Your clinic will give you figures relating to the various types of treatment on offer and you may like to compare these to the national average success rates. The most recent information on IVF and donor insemination statistics is available from the Human Fertilisation and Embryology Authority (HFEA) which monitors the clinics that provide these treatments. To give you an idea of the success rates for IVF, the national average “take-home baby rate” is around 17 per cent.
However, do not judge a clinic by its statistics alone; it may specialise in treating older women, for example, where success rates are naturally lower. If a clinic has a great deal of experience in treating your particular problem, that clinic may be your best option. Another factor to bear in mind is how long the clinic has been established. The HFEA a government body that licence fertility treatment and research clinics in the UK, now provides information about choosing a clinic which allows patients to search for clinics in their location and see success rates and the different services they offer. It is designed to help you make informed choices. It contains a full list of information which you may want to consider before beginning treatment and questions to ask at prospective treatment centres.
The HFEA have recently updated their website and focused especially on making it as informative as they can for patients, i.e. allowing them to see exactly what to expect when embarking upon fertility treatment or considering donation.
Your doctor may suggest you move on after three tries with any treatment option; some experts believe a treatment isn’t likely to work if it hasn’t by your third round. But keep in mind that each couple’s case is individual; six attempts with IVF is certainly not unheard of.
Good luck!
Useful Addresses
Human Fertilisation Embryology Authority,
Paxton House,
30 Artillery Lane, LONDON
El 7LS.
Tel: 020 7377 5077
British Infertility Counsellors Association,
69 Division Street
Sheffield, S. Yorkshire.
DC Network (Donor Conception Network)
Tel: 0208 245 4369.
Set up by and for parents of Dl children and those contemplating or undergoing treatment using donated gametes.
COTS (Childlessness Overcome Through Surrogacy),
Loandhu Cottage, Gruids Lairg, Sutherland, SCOTLAND IV27 4EF.
Tel: 01549 402401.
Multiple Birth Foundation,
Queen Charlotte’s &; Chelsea Hospital,
Goldhawk Road, LONDON W6 OXG
National Infertility Awareness Campaign,
PO Box 2106, LONDON W1A 3DZ.
Tel: 0800 716345 (Freephone).
Clare Brown IN UK
Tel: 08701 188088

Fertility treatment: intrauterine insemination (IUI)

Fertility treatment: intrauterine insemination (IUI)

Intrauterine insemination (IUI) is a form of assisted conception. During IUI, your doctor will place washed, prepared sperm into your uterus (womb) and near to your egg at your time of ovulation. This procedure is often combined with fertility drugs to increase your chances of conceiving.

Could IUI benefit us?

IUI may help you as a couple if:

  • Your spouse has a borderline low sperm count or low motility. This is when the sperm’s ability to move is impaired. But there must be enough healthy, motile sperm to make the treatment worthwhile. If not, IVF or ICSI may be more suitable.
  • You are unable to have sex because of disability, injury, or if your spouse experiences premature ejaculation.
  • You have mild endometriosis.
  • You or your spouse’s fertility problems are unexplained.

For IUI to work, your fallopian tubes must be open and healthy. To find this out, you will need to have a tubal patency test. This can be done using laparoscopy, which is a form of keyhole surgery, or a hysterosalpingogram, which is a form of X-ray. These may locate any problems or blockages in your uterus or fallopian tubes.

IUI isn’t recommended if your tubes have adhesions or scarring that might stop an egg travelling from the ovary to your uterus. But if you have at least one working tube and ovary on the same side, IUI may be an option for you.

How is IUI carried out?

Depending on your particular fertility problem, you may need to use fertility drugs alongside your IUI treatment. If you do take fertility drugs it’s called a stimulated cycle, because the drugs stimulate ovulation. If drugs are not used it’s called an unstimulated cycle, or natural cycle.

Stimulating ovulation is not recommended if only your spouse has a fertility problem, or if the reason for infertility is unexplained. This is because there is a much greater risk of a multiple pregnancy when taking fertility drugs.

You may think that twins or more would be a great way to start a family if you have fertility problems. But multiple pregnancies increase your risk of miscarriage and other pregnancy complications.

In unstimulated cycles, IUI is timed to take place at the time of natural ovulation. You may be asked to detect ovulation using an ovulation predictor kit, or your doctor may track your cycle using blood tests and ultrasound scans. IUI is usually done between day 12 and day 16 of a natural menstrual cycle, but the exact day will depend on your individual cycle.

If your fertility specialist has offered IUI during a stimulated cycle, you’ll probably be given fertility drugs in the form of tablets or injections. You’ll start taking the drug near the beginning of your menstrual cycle to stimulate your ovaries to develop several mature eggs for fertilisation. This is rather than your usual one egg per month.

An ultrasound scan helps to locate the egg and check that it is mature. This will allow insemination to take place at the best time. You may ovulate naturally, or be given an injection of a hormone called human chorionic gonadotrophin (hcg) to bring it on.

Sperm is then inserted into your uterus within 24 hours and 40 hours of the hcg injection, or when you have a rise (surge) in luteinising hormone (LH). Your husband will be asked to provide a sperm sample which will be washed to extract the best quality and most mobile sperm.

Using a catheter (tube) through your cervix, your doctor will then put this sperm directly into your uterus near a fallopian tube. This is the passage the egg travels along from an ovary to your uterus.

If you have unexplained infertility, the sperm may be inserted within a larger volume of fluid than usual. This allows it to wash up into your fallopian tubes more easily (fallopian sperm perfusion). This technique takes a few minutes more than standard IUI and may increase your chance of success.

After IUI you will rest for a short time and then carry on life as normal. You’ll be able to take a pregnancy test in about two weeks.

How long will treatment last?

The insemination itself is straightforward and takes only a few minutes. If you are having a stimulated cycle, you’ll need to take fertility drugs before you ovulate.

What are the success rates of IUI?

Success rates depend on the cause and severity of the infertility and your age. UK success rates for IUI using donor sperm are about:

  • 16 per cent if you are under 35
  • 11 per cent if you are between 35 and 39
  • five per cent if you are between 40 and 42
  • one per cent if you are between 43 and 44
  • 0nought per cent if you are over 44

Up to six cycles of IUI treatment are recommended for unexplained infertility or mild endometriosis, or if your spouse has a low sperm count. If you keep trying for up to six times you do increase your chances of becoming pregnant.

Are there any downsides to IUI?

Despite the benefits (see top section, Could IUI benefit us?) IUI is not for everyone.

  • The timing of the insemination is crucial, so your spouse must be able to produce a sperm sample by ejaculating into a cup on demand at the clinic.
  • It may be uncomfortable if it proves difficult to insert the catheter. And the procedure may cause cramps similar to period pains.
  • With stimulated cycles there is a very small risk of developing ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS). This serious condition happens when your ovaries respond too well to the fertility drugs that cause you to ovulate. The ovaries rapidly swell up to several times their normal size and can leak fluid into your tummy, making you gain weight and feel full and bloated.

It’s vital that you seek medical help if you think you are experiencing OHSS. You may need to stay in hospital while your ovaries settle down, and your doctor will probably advise cancelling your IUI treatment for this cycle. That’s because the risks of conceiving a multiple pregnancy will be too great.

You can talk about IUI and artificial insemination in our BabyCenter community.